Hydrographic Institute of the Republic of Croatia
Pursuant to the Act on Hydrographic Activity (offi cial gazette of the Republic of Croatia “Narodne novine” 68/98), the State Hydrographic Institute was transformed into a public institution named the Hydrographic Institute of the Republic of Croatia (HHI). It has been operating as such since January 5, 2000, performing hydrographic activities of interest for the Republic of Croatia.
According to the law, the Hydrographic Institute of the Republic of Croatia performs science, research, development, and professional activities regarding the safety of navigation on the Adriatic, hydrographic and geodetic surveys of the Adriatic, marine surveys, design and making of navigational charts and nautical publications, oceanology research, research of marine geology, as well as publishing and press activities.
The Institute is authorised for the development of navigation safety service in the Adriatic, in line with the recommendations of the following institutions:
- International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO)
- International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
- International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA)
and in cooperation with the Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure, Croatian Navy, Harbourmaster’s Offi ces, Institute for Maintenance of Maritime Routes, and hydrographic institutes of maritime countries world-wide. All gathered and processed data are stored at the Archive of Original Documents and Surveys, i.e. the HHI database. The Archive also keeps the cartographic originals of all printed maps. The Hydrographic Institute of the Republic of Croatia includes a library with approximately 8000 scientifi c books and magazines collected during years of operation and as the result of exchange with hydrographic institutes and related institutions.
Institute of Hydrometeorology and Seismology of Montenegro
Government of Montenegro on 20 December 1947 adopted the Regulation on the establishment of Hydrometeorological Service of Montenegro, as the national authority of the Government of Montenegro. In that period, there were approximately 34 weather stations in the country and the first systematic measurement and monitoring started. In 1949 began the storing of recorded data into Hydrometeorological Service archives.
From 1 July 2012, the Hydrometeorological and Seismological institutions are administratively merged into a single state authority, which now bears the name as the Institute of Hydrometeorology and Seismology of Montenegro (IHMS).
Today there are numerous weather, hydrology, and agrometeorology stations, as well as stations for surface water, ground water, lake and sea water quality control on the Montenegrin territory, all part of the IHMS. The Institute of Hydrometeorology and Seismology of Montenegro is a public institution, in charge of monitoring atmospheric and hydrospheric conditions on scientific methods and standards of the World Meteorological Organisation. Being a public institution, IHMS is financed from the state budget.
IHMS assignments include:
- Monitoring and measurement of meteorological, hydrological, ecological, and agrometeorological parameters; analysis, processing, and archiving measured and monitored parameters
- Processing of climate, soil, air, surface and ground water, and coastal see-related studies, analyses, and information
- Surface and ground water, air, and precipitation control and quality evaluation based on physical, chemical, biochemical, and microbiological parameters
- Issuance of data, information, and studies requested by various sectors: water, air, and road traffic, energy production, water management, civil engineering, tourism, protection of goods and human lives
- Meeting international obligations regarding meteorology, hydrology, hydrography, ecology, and other relevant assignments The operation of the Service is organised in four Sectors
The basic task of the Montenegro Institute of Hydrometeorology and Seismology Meteorology Sector, as a reference institution, is meteorological measuring and monitoring, data transfer, and further data processing. Measuring and monitoring are performed in nine main stations, 20 climatological stations, and more than 50 precipitation stations, in accordance with criteria set by the World Meteorological Organisation.
According to the length of a forecast period, a weather forecast can be divided into: nowcasting (up to 3 hours); very short-range forecast (up to 12 hours); short-range forecast (up to 3 days ahead); medium-range forecast (up to 10 days ahead) and long-range forecast (for more than 10 days ahead; monthly and seasonal forecasts). IHMS Weather Forecast Unit regularly produces very-short range, short-range and extended short-range forecasts (up to 5 days) for the territory of Montenegro. In addition, the Unit also produces a special forecast twice a day for the Port Authority and other clients, concerning the weather conditions in our part of the Adriatic Sea and coast.
With runoff averaging at 40 litres/s/km2, or approximately 19.5 km3/year, Montenegro is among the 4% of the largest average runoff territory in the world. Hydrological station network includes stations in the Black Sea and Adriatic basins, some of which are automatic stations with on-line data on the IHMS web page.
Hydrography and oceanography:
The aim of hydrographic activities is ensuring safe navigation at sea and in internal navigation routes, in order to protect human lives and goods, as well as conducting research with the goal to manage sea resources and protect the living environment. Hydrographic activities include the following: hydrographic and topographic survey of the sea and internal navigation routes, gathering data from the area of hydrography, navigation, geology, and geophysics (changes in sea level, waves, sea currents, thermohaline, hydroacoustics, optical characteristics of the sea, etc.), processing, issuing and maintaining navigational charts and publications in accordance with the recommendations of the International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). The Hydrography and Oceanography Sector works with professional equipment and bathymetry measurement software, with two permanent mareography stations (Bar and Kotor) and three hydrographic survey vessels.
IHMS Living Environment Sector includes two organisational and programming units: Chemistry Centre and Biology Division, covering the air, water, and ground areas of expertise/thematic areas. In accordance with legal provisions, this service performs an annual permanent control of surface and ground water and air quality in the Montenegrin territory.
Evaluation of the water and air quality is made in accordance with legal regulations. Methodology of work has been fully standardized in all phases of sampling, analysis and data processing.
Seismology: Seismological Sector carries out continuous seismic and geodynamic monitoring and seismological analysis, for the purpose of the knowledge expanding on geological and geophysical processes of the preparation and occurrence of earthquakes on the Montenegro territory and its effects on buildings and infrastructure systems. Seismological Sector performs different tasks related to: analysis of seismic signals, processing of observations results and interpretation of seismicity, studying the phenomenology of earthquake preparation and occurrence, technical maintenance of National network of seismic stations etc. Also, realizes tasks related to applied or engineering seismology, in order to define seismic parameters for sites planed for high building constructions, seismic regionalization of the whole Montenegro territory, etc. This Sector continuously observes a specific phenomenon, registered in the regions of large water reservoirs, so-called induced seismicity, occurring as a result of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic processes during large reservoir pounding and impounding.
Today, Montenegrin Seismological Network consists of 14 seismic stations after installation of the forth broad-band station at the end of July 2011, near town Kolašin (KOME).
The University of Dubrovnik
The University of Dubrovnik was founded in 2003 and comes from a long tradition, going back to the 17th century, when the Collegium Rhagusinum was founded as the fi rst public institution of higher education in Dubrovnik, attended by the notable scientist Ruđer Bošković. Modern higher education started with the establishment of the Maritime College, followed by the School of International Trade and Tourism, School of Maritime Studies, and the Dubrovnik Polytechnic. The University of Dubrovnik is the successor of all these schools. Its programmes, its organisation, and its technical equipment make it a cutting-edge institute of higher education.
The basic characteristics of the University of Dubrovnik are the following:
- Organisation and fi nancial activities enabling the integration of all University components
- Departments for university and professional study programmes and the organisation and performance of educational, scientifi c, and expert work
- Curriculum in line with the recommendations of the Bologna declaration
- Transfer of ECTS credits and student and teacher mobility
- Encouraging active inclusion of students in the educational process, administrative bodies, research projects, and extracurricular activities
- Continuous monitoring of teaching and education quality on the basis of mutual teacher and student evaluations
- Encouraging teaching and scientifi c training of teachers and associates
- Maintenance and improvement of work and business quality control system (HRN EN ISO 9001:2002)
- Monitoring economic and social needs when making new curriculums
- Openness to international cooperation aimed at attracting international programmes and foreign students
Institute for Marine and Coastal Research
Organized research work in the fields of oceanography and fishery started in Dubrovnik after World War II with the founding of the Fishery Centre in 1946 and with the establishment of the Biological Institute of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Art (JAZU) in 1949. They formed the base for the present scientific research work of the Institute for Marine and Coastal Research of the University of Dubrovnik. The Institute for Marine and Coastal Research is located in St. John’s Fortress in the historical centre of Dubrovnik. The activities of the Institute are basic and concern the research of natural features in the Adriatic Sea and its coastline, particularly research into the structure and processes of ecosystems. The Institute also develops other activities, such as: monitoring living marine and land resources, monitoring sea quality, experimental rearing of plant and animal species with the aim of acquiring fundamental knowledge and studying the various stages of natural processes, maintenance and popularization of aquarium, maintenance and popularization of the Botanical Garden on the Lokrum island, formation of scientific and expert collections, as well as the organization of courses and lectures.
The Public enterprise for coastal zone management
The Public enterprise for coastal zone management is established in 1992 by the decision of the Montenegrin Parliament to carry out the management of the public maritime domain (coastal zone) as prescribed by the Montenegrin Coastal Zone Law. This government institution is in charge of the protection, maintenance and development of the coastal zone of Montenegro including the 60m2 of coastal land strip and the 2500 m2 of the territorial sea surface.
With over 20 years of experience, this Public enterprise sucessfully dealing with coastal issues such as beach management, management of ports and nautical and maritime coastal infrastructure, management of coastal protected areas, development and maintainance of coastal public areas such as walkways, beaches and parks, monitoring of the state of the coastal zone including the bathing water monitoring.
Through public-private parthership, and based on the spatial and other plans and programs adopted by the Governament of Montenegro, Public enterprise for coastal zone management rents parts of the coastal zone for realisation of economic activiities, turistic and other services.
In this way, an annual budget of 6 million euros is generated, that is, according to the Law, reinvested in the development of the coastal zone: 50% is realized directly by the Pulic enterprise’s projects, and other 50% is the income of the coastal local municipalities.