Government of Montenegro on 20 December 1947 adopted the Regulation on the establishment of Hydrometeorological Service of Montenegro, as the national authority of the Government of Montenegro. In that period, there were approximately 34 weather stations in the country and the first systematic measurement and monitoring started. In 1949 began the storing of recorded data into Hydrometeorological Service archives.
From 1 July 2012, the Hydrometeorological and Seismological institutions are administratively merged into a single state authority, which now bears the name as the Institute of Hydrometeorology and Seismology of Montenegro (IHMS).
Today there are numerous weather, hydrology, and agrometeorology stations, as well as stations for surface water, ground water, lake and sea water quality control on the Montenegrin territory, all part of the IHMS. The Institute of Hydrometeorology and Seismology of Montenegro is a public institution, in charge of monitoring atmospheric and hydrospheric conditions on scientific methods and standards of the World Meteorological Organisation. Being a public institution, IHMS is financed from the state budget.
IHMS assignments include:
- Monitoring and measurement of meteorological, hydrological, ecological, and agrometeorological parameters; analysis, processing, and archiving measured and monitored parameters
- Processing of climate, soil, air, surface and ground water, and coastal see-related studies, analyses, and information
- Surface and ground water, air, and precipitation control and quality evaluation based on physical, chemical, biochemical, and microbiological parameters
- Issuance of data, information, and studies requested by various sectors: water, air, and road traffic, energy production, water management, civil engineering, tourism, protection of goods and human lives
- Meeting international obligations regarding meteorology, hydrology, hydrography, ecology, and other relevant assignments The operation of the Service is organised in four Sectors
The basic task of the Montenegro Institute of Hydrometeorology and Seismology Meteorology Sector, as a reference institution, is meteorological measuring and monitoring, data transfer, and further data processing. Measuring and monitoring are performed in nine main stations, 20 climatological stations, and more than 50 precipitation stations, in accordance with criteria set by the World Meteorological Organisation.
According to the length of a forecast period, a weather forecast can be divided into: nowcasting (up to 3 hours); very short-range forecast (up to 12 hours); short-range forecast (up to 3 days ahead); medium-range forecast (up to 10 days ahead) and long-range forecast (for more than 10 days ahead; monthly and seasonal forecasts). IHMS Weather Forecast Unit regularly produces very-short range, short-range and extended short-range forecasts (up to 5 days) for the territory of Montenegro. In addition, the Unit also produces a special forecast twice a day for the Port Authority and other clients, concerning the weather conditions in our part of the Adriatic Sea and coast.
With runoff averaging at 40 litres/s/km2, or approximately 19.5 km3/year, Montenegro is among the 4% of the largest average runoff territory in the world. Hydrological station network includes stations in the Black Sea and Adriatic basins, some of which are automatic stations with on-line data on the IHMS web page.
Hydrography and oceanography:
The aim of hydrographic activities is ensuring safe navigation at sea and in internal navigation routes, in order to protect human lives and goods, as well as conducting research with the goal to manage sea resources and protect the living environment. Hydrographic activities include the following: hydrographic and topographic survey of the sea and internal navigation routes, gathering data from the area of hydrography, navigation, geology, and geophysics (changes in sea level, waves, sea currents, thermohaline, hydroacoustics, optical characteristics of the sea, etc.), processing, issuing and maintaining navigational charts and publications in accordance with the recommendations of the International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). The Hydrography and Oceanography Sector works with professional equipment and bathymetry measurement software, with two permanent mareography stations (Bar and Kotor) and three hydrographic survey vessels.
IHMS Living Environment Sector includes two organisational and programming units: Chemistry Centre and Biology Division, covering the air, water, and ground areas of expertise/thematic areas. In accordance with legal provisions, this service performs an annual permanent control of surface and ground water and air quality in the Montenegrin territory.
Evaluation of the water and air quality is made in accordance with legal regulations. Methodology of work has been fully standardized in all phases of sampling, analysis and data processing.
Seismology: Seismological Sector carries out continuous seismic and geodynamic monitoring and seismological analysis, for the purpose of the knowledge expanding on geological and geophysical processes of the preparation and occurrence of earthquakes on the Montenegro territory and its effects on buildings and infrastructure systems. Seismological Sector performs different tasks related to: analysis of seismic signals, processing of observations results and interpretation of seismicity, studying the phenomenology of earthquake preparation and occurrence, technical maintenance of National network of seismic stations etc. Also, realizes tasks related to applied or engineering seismology, in order to define seismic parameters for sites planed for high building constructions, seismic regionalization of the whole Montenegro territory, etc. This Sector continuously observes a specific phenomenon, registered in the regions of large water reservoirs, so-called induced seismicity, occurring as a result of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic processes during large reservoir pounding and impounding.
Today, Montenegrin Seismological Network consists of 14 seismic stations after installation of the forth broad-band station at the end of July 2011, near town Kolašin (KOME).